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CD20-based Immunotherapy of B-cell Derived Hematologic Malignancies.

Abstract
CD20 is a surface antigen which is expressed at certain stages of B-cell differentiation. Targeting the CD20-positive B-cells with therapeutic monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) has been an effectual strategy in the treatment of hematologic malignancies such as non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Initial success with Rituximab (RTX) has encouraged the creation and development of more effective CD20 based therapeutics. However, treatment with conventional MAbs has not been adequate to overcome the problems such as refractory/relapsed disease. In this regard, new generations of MAbs with enhanced affinity or improved anti-tumor properties have been developed. Antibody derivatives and bispecific antibodies (bsAbs) which exert multiple functions or involve T-cells in tumor elimination could also be listed in CD20 targeted agents. Recently, engineered T-cells armed with chimeric antigen receptors (CAR T-cells) are being evaluated for targeted therapy of CD20 positive B-cells. Since CD20 directed therapeutics have heterogeneous features and mechanisms of action, . Hence, having sufficient knowledge on the immunological and molecular aspects of CD20 based cancer therapy is necessary for predicting the clinical outcomes and taking the necessary measures. The current review focuses on the biology, function and characteristics of CD20 as a B-cell specific marker, as well as the mechanisms of action and evolutionary process of CD20 targeting agents. Moreover, limitations, challenges and available solutions regarding the application of CD20 targeting immuno-therapeutics will be addressed.

PMID: 28067179 [Pubmed - Publisher]

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